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Origin and Migrations of Homo Sapiens

© Lori Lappin, the Witch of WITCHCRAFTS ARTISAN ALCHEMY®

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Image 1

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Image 2

Given new scientific research and genetic data, I am updating my hypothesis of ancestral human migrations and population differentiation. I now believe that my anthropoid primate ancestors first evolved in (climatically tropical) Antarctica during the late Paleocene (to early Eocene) before the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent. During this period when Gondwana was still together, they then migrated from Antarctica into what is now called India, which was still joined to Antarctica, Madagascar and Africa. Also during this time, there may have been a population split - one group moving into the Horn of Africa and another remaining on the land of the Indian plate.

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The group of anthropoid primates which migrated into Africa via the Horn of Africa interbred with other anthropoid primates native to Africa, giving rise the varied species of pre-human hominids we know existed in and were native to Africa (including the Australopithecines).
 
The group of anthropoid primates remaining on the land of the Indian plate evolved into pre-human hominids on the Indian plate, and further into Homo sapiens in Eurasia after the breakup of Gondwana and the Indian plate's eventual collision with Eurasia.

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The anthropoid primate group moving with the the Indian plate toward Eurasia gave rise to the group of pre-human hominids which would give rise to early archaic Homo sapiens.

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Once the Indian plate collided with Eurasia, early pre-human hominids migrated west (otherwise blocked by the the Himalayan Mountains). I believe that pre-human hominids evolved into Homo sapiens in the bottom red circled area in Image 1 (top image), in the areas of Northwestern India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Turkmenistan. I believe that this area is home of the source population for all archaic Homo sapiens.

From this Eurasian source population of archaic Homo sapiens, one group split off (brown line), moved through the Middle East, through the Sinai and into Africa (at a time when no Red Sea existed - see Image 2). There this archaic Homo sapien group interbred with other archaic hominins (including those known as Paleoafricans, an archaic human lineage genetically exclusive to Native African lineages and not genetically admixed with any non-African human lineages) and became the Negrid populations of Homo sapiens.

From the Eurasian source population, another group split off, moving north (purple line) into European Russia. This group of archaic Homo sapiens had not yet differentiated yet into Europids, Mongolids or Siberians/Amerindians. Moving through Georgia in Central North Eurasia, one group picked up Denisovan ancestry - this Europid group (my own genetic cluster) turned west (turquoise line) moving deeper into Europe. The remaining group (containing an undifferentiated Mongolid and Amerindian genetic cluster) turned east (light purple line) moving deeper into Russia. Later this group split, one group continuing east (orange line) in Russian Siberia (which would become the Siberian and Amerindian genetic cluster), while the other group turned south (green line) into East Asia (becoming the Mongolid genetic cluster) as the Himalayan Mountains did not block migration into East Asia from the north.

This scenario for the origin and migrations of Homo sapiens fits the newest Chinese model of human origins, fits my own genetic data, and fits what we currently know about population genetic clusters. Native Africans split off from other archaic Homo sapiens first, then there was a split between the Europid and Mongolid/Siberian/Amerindian clusters, then a genetic split occurred between the Mongolid and Siberian/Amerindian clusters.

Related Articles:

The End of Out-of_Africa: A Copernicum Reassessment of the Patterns of Genetic Variation in the Old World

World Science en Route from Out-of_Africa to Out-of-America, First Stop: Out-of-Asia

Pitfalls Reconstructing the Last Common Ancestor of Chimpanzees and Humans

"The morphological nature of the last common ancestor (LCA) of chimpanzees/bonobos and humans is a fascinating topic in human evolution. Available evidence suggests that both lineages share a LCA that lived inAfrica ∼ 8–6 Myr. However, the hominoid fossil record of this time period is inadequate" ... indeed it is essentially absent. Science can provide only one archeological find in putative support of the theory that the LCA of humans, chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas evolved in Africa - and that find (Chororapithecus abyssinicus) is itself DISPUTED AS BEING A MEMBER OF THE GREAT APE LINEAGE SHARED BY GORILLAS, CHIMPANZEES, BONOBOS AND HUMANS.

Chororapithecus abyssinicus

Scientists have no reliable and undisputed evidence that the LCA (last common ancestor) shared by humans, chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas evolved in Africa. NONE. There are lots and lots of hominid fossils in Africa, but none of them are directly linked to the lineage of Homo sapiens or to the lineage of the LCA shared by Homo sapiens, chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas.

"Despite the finds, other researchers are not convinced that the conclusions are correct. Although the teeth are very similar to those of modern gorillas, they could have been shaped by parallel evolution of a genetically different species which consumed similar foods. "It is stretching the evidence to base a time scale for the evolution of the great apes on this new fossil. THESE STRUCTURES APPEAR ON AT LEAST THREE INDEPENDENT LINEAGES OF APES, INCLUDING GORILLAS, and they could relate to a dietary shift rather than indicating a new genetic trait," said Professor Peter Andrews at the Natural History Museum in London, UK, who also added, "but the fossil evidence for the evolution of our closest living relatives, the great apes, is almost non-existent."

Given the relative abundance of hominid fossils found in Africa in parallel with the astounding lack of finding an ancestral link among any these African hominids to the lineage of the LCA shared by gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and humans or to Homo sapiens directly, I think that the scientific evidence at this point overwhelmingly favors and suggests that all we human peeps were firstly Eurasians.